Thursday, November 29, 2007

India -a multi lingual country

India is a multilingual country
one billion speakers
28 states and in 7 union territories
114 languages and 216 mother tongues
scheduled languages 18 ( 96.29%)
non-scheduled 96 (3.17% )
How many languages are in India?
105? 325? 1652?
there are many numbers and there is no uniform total. Why it is so? It is all because of the
Lack of systematic surveys and moreover the difficulty of distinguishing between a language and dialects were created such enormous variation.

Language diversity of India


How many languages are there in the world? There is no single universally agreed total. Most of the references usually end up with the estimates between 6,000 and 10,000. Of which, majority until recent decades were based on guesswork, thus such studies resulted either in overestimation or underestimation. To say, lack of systematic surveys and professional guidance and moreover the difficulty of distinguishing between a language and dialects were created such enormous variation. It is, indeed, problematic to accept those estimates without considering their inherent lacunas. However, interest on world languages has been growing over the last few years. For instance, Bright (1992) listed 6300 languages and 6703 languages by Grimmes (1996) and Mosely and Asher (1995) indexed 6796 languages. Despite the difference in number, the diversity of world languages is amazing. The bad news is that 90% of the 6000 existing languages may become extinct in the coming century. Over half of these languages are already endangered, infact, 96% of them are spoken by just 4% of the world’s population, according to UNESCO. The speakers of the vast majority of these languages-90% of them have zero presence on the internet- are indigenous communities. It is reported that on an average one language disappears every two weeks. Nature’s secrets, locked away in the songs, stories, art and handicrafts of indigenous people, may be lost forever as a result of growing globalisation, warns the united nations environment programme.

In India, the tribal communities are smallest in geographical spread and in population strength. They cover only 8.8%(1991census) of the Indian populace. The diverse communities represent different stages of socio-cultural evolution of India. This very diversity provide a wide scope for the study of speech variation in order to understand different stages of language development as we find language in every stage of social evolution from hunting gathering to civil society. However, to put it squarely, a comprehensive survey of the tribal languages in the light of linguistics remains practically neglected in India. But other wise we were credited with the linguistic survey of India (Grierson1903-1928), 1961 census (language Volume) and People of India (language volume) 1993 (Anthropological survey of India). At first, we need to develop a perspective as a preface to this study. Let us address the question: should we care the Linguistic diversity of India in the present era of Globalisation? Yes, indeed. Not only we should consider linguistic diversity as a resource of human kind but also should conceive both the decline in the number of languages and the emerging trend in having mono linguistic dominance over small languages as a threat to our plural existence. The 20th Century, particularly the period after the Second World War, English dominates in the international trade, finance, diplomacy and science. Tourism and entertainment industry have extended its reach and the Internet has made it even pervasive and thus to say that English has been playing a crucial role in shaping of the modern world linguistic order, by creating a new generations of bilingual and multilingual speakers across the world. More people than ever before speak English, although the proportion of its native speakers (relative to native speakers of the world’s languages) actually declines. Chinese will remain unchallenged as the world’s largest language in terms of native speakers, with Hindi and Urdu ranking second and third. Arabic speakers will overtake native English speakers. Bengali, Tamil and Malay are among the world’s most rapidly growing languages. The bad news is that 90% of the 6000 existing languages may become extinct in the coming century. Over half of these languages are already endangered, in fact, 96% of them are spoken by just 4% of the world’s population, according to UNESCO. The speakers of the vast majority of these languages-90% of them have zero presence on the internet- are indigenous communities.

It is to be accepted that even in the very ecological sense, like bio-diversity, linguistic diversity should also need to maintain. In fact, we are at a critical point in human linguistic history, as we never had faced such a serious threat to the survival of small languages at any time before. It is reported that on an average one language disappears in every two weeks.

Like other areas of the world, India too is experiencing language loss. But unfortunate to say we have not paid much attention yet to account how many languages have lost already or how many languages are at the point of death or how many are endangered? Many factors constitute language death, where the decline in number of speakers reaches the zero point (extinct languages) and the language endangerment. True to say that it cannot be casually treated since it is intimately linked with people. It is alarming, unprecedented rate is experiencing in dying of weaker languages throughout the world. So to invite attention on the tribal languages of India, being weaker languages is inevitable. In general, discussion on tribal languages of India is bounded on one side by the academic consideration and on the other side by the political considerations.
There are different language families identified in India. Andamanese,Austroasiatic, Dravidian, Indo Aryan and Tibeto Burman are the identified language families in India. Ofwhich, Andamanese is yet to find an administrative recogntion as a language family. In coming pages we will discuss in detail on each language family and the respective speaking communities. Also a review of all linguistic diversity studies of India will be discussed systematically.

Why the linguistic diversity is more in India than China (7 languages and hundreds of dialects) though area size India covers only one third of China. The common assumption is that the high degree of large diversity found in India is due to the existence of diverse population groups. It is always addressed by many disciplines that how such pattern has emerged in India. Scholars have maintained without sufficient proof that number of races and groups, which migrated to India in ancient days. Tracing the prehistory of South Asia is not an easy task. Yet, it is significant to outline in brief, for the diachronic understanding of the linguistic diversity of India. It has been concerned to many scholars since long and a respectable amount of literature is available to us but the enquiry continues to unfold a lot.

The four language families of India (Indo Aryan, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto Burman) are understood as the surviving representatives of an erstwhile tradition of language families homed at South Asia. Besides, the presences of isolated remnants like Buruhaski (North Pakistan), Kusunda (Central Nepal), Nahali (Central India), Nilgiri languages (Toda, Kota, Kurumba etc), Vedda (Srilanka) and Negroid languages of Andaman Islands (Andamanese family) recall the linguistic diversity of ancient time. The linguistic pre history of India reveals that both Asia and Europe had early inhabitation and some groups from them migrated to India as if this land of the continent was barren to accommodate as many outsiders. So no language is originally, family wise Indian, rather they belongs to outside by origin. At this stage, it may sound odd while it was the projected and accepted reality. When we see the colonial studies on linguistic history of India, it had been projected the view that linguistically India has been dominated by the Aryan and the Dravidian stock.
Hoernele and Grierson, on the basis of linguistic theories suggested two bands of migration and therefore the language difference. The first band settled in Sapta Sindhava region and the second skirting around the Indus, perhaps settled in Banas valley. From there, they moved to the northern slopes of Vindhyas and to Bihar and also into the Doab (V.I.Subramaniam, 1995). Grierson and later Emaneau argued that Mohanjodaro or Harappa civilization do not have any Indian touch. It was partially closer to the West Asia and the later developed Indus civilization.

The ancient linguistic history used to be discussed in relation with Rgveda and Indus or Harappan civilization. In fact, both are not originally tribal based rather they were city civilization. The society depicted in Rgveda was representing the emergence of feudal set up than tribal in character. Also to note, both these are based in North India. The transformation of tribal social structure to feudal structure at that point of time in India is too important to understand the social history as well as the language history of India. The oldest Tamil literature is also not represents then the tribal society. How many speech forms are there along with Vedic language is still not ascertained. Studies project the view that 3000 years back, some groups immigrated to India through North West and spread their language and from which Sanskrit and later modern Aryan languages descended. The Aryans settled in Punjab then to the Gangetic plain. Among the Indo Aryans, the ethnic units affiliated to Indo European of eastern Anatolia, North eastern Mesopotamia, North western Iran some units from Greece and some of Scythio Iranus of Central Asia are later found (G.S.Ghurye, 1979). The elements, which are not found in European languages but present in Vedic or Sanskrit are called non Indo European. Initially such features were counted as Dravidian and now as Proto Munda. Caldwell grouped Dravidian along with Turk, Mongol and Finnian Ugrarian family. Later, Burrow too proved that Dravidian came from Europe on the basis of its Finno ugrarian connection. Munda named Austro-Asiatic and by name itself it is not an Indian family. They too were accounted as immigrants so as the case with Sino Tibetan (Tibeto Burmese now). What is left as Indian among these families of languages is that, how much difference each one maintains as part of Indianization. Emaneau’s concept on linguistic area is valid to refer here.
Emaneau (1956) defined India as “a linguistic area,” an area, which includes languages belonging to more than one family but showing traits in common which are not found to belong to other members of (at least) one of the families. He explains this phenomenon as a consequence of structural borrowing through bilingualism, (impact of non Indo Aryan on Indo Aryan). He also observed the close affiliation between South Asian languages and Indian languages in case of conservative vocabulary (kinship terms, classifiers etc) and argued that population of India and South Asia are related either by intermarriage or by other modes of absorption. However, both in population and linguistic as well as cultural level South Asia and India share a lot of commonness.
The historicity of Dravidian and Munda and their relation with Vedic language is the usual theme in the discussion of India’s linguistic history. Normally, how many non-Aryan words are there in the Vedic language is the focus of such discussions. Witzel (2001) in his study on substrate languages in old Indo Aryan, argued that in the first Rgvedic period (1700-1500 BCE), no Dravidian substrate was there. But at that time there were number of forms with prefixes were appeared in Vedic language. He is of the opinion that those forms may be representing the then existence of a proto Munda, called Para Munda language. According to him, Dravidian representation in Vedic language begins from Rgveda II (1500-1350 BCE) and Rgveda III (1350-1200BCE) periods. The prefixed forms neither belong to Dravidian nor Tibeto Burman, and it indicates a strong presence of Austro Asiatic substratum in Punjab. Also, some hints to Munda influence in the Himalayas made us to believe that language of Indus people at least those in Punjab must have been Para Munda or western form of Austro-Asiatic and Munda link also represent an early link to Sumerian.
He summed up on the Dravidian connection with Rgveda as “early influence in Punjab can be excluded but must be explained for the following middle and later Rgveda period. It must be noted that in all of the Rgveda there are no typical Dravidian words for agriculture which should be expected if the Indus people of the Punjab had been speakers of Dravidian”. This agrees with the argument on early Dravidian; an originally pastoral society that acquired agriculture only in South Asia (Southworth, 1990).
About Indus languages, he says that there are indications that another language was prevalent in Sindh before the immigration of the Dravida. The trade of the Indus with Sumerian and later Mesopotamia has left us a number of words that are not Dravidian. It is perhaps best to call this language as ‘Meluhhan ’after the name Sumerian gave to the country, meluHHa. Its language was also different from Elamite or Sumerian”.
The linguistic evidence from Sindh indicate that speakers of Dravidian were not a primary factor in the population of the Indus civilization even of Sindh and that they were immigrants into Punjab only in middle Rgvedic times.
In brief, the ancient days number of groups migrated from different regions to India and at one end the route of migration is yet to be marked unambiguously, and on the other end there were traces of linguistic evidences, which shows the presence of various substratum. The interesting aspect is that, Dravidian presence found in Punjab and Sindh earlier is questioned in the light of the prefixed forms that are counted now as proto Munda. Even if it is not proto Munda then also it is non-Dravidian one and that is the value of Witsel’s observation.
The early linguistic picture of South Asia during Vedic and Indus period is as complex as or even more so that its modern counterpart. Witzel has tried to establish Indo Irania substratum from central Asia and Iran and the North West and Vindya region of central and south Indian and Himalayan and Gangetic area and Tibeto Burman substrates and Para Munda substrates of Western India area. His study underlines the fact that there were number of languages existed in different parts of South Asia, particularly in India both in pre and post Vedic periods.
V.I. Subramaniam (1995) has enumerated number of ancient groups or races, which migrated to India in pre Aryan and post Aryan periods. He has done this exercise by profusely citing the works of Romila Thapar (1979), G.S.Ghurye (1979) and Malathy Shendge (1977). He is of the opinion that 153 groups or tribes found to have migrated to India, which are enumerated from the Vedas and post Vedic texts including Puranas. According to him, among the list, some of them may personal names or place names. However another study made by K.S.Singh (1996) on Manu and Contemporary Indian Ethnography is also need to be mentioned here. He too annexed a community list of Manu and POI (people of India). All studies on ancient Indian history and Vedic interpretation undoubtedly accept that different population groups with different occupation and culture inhabited in different parts of ancient India. All information available in that period underlines the conflict between Aryan and others and the Aryan’s perception on others. For instance, the Rig Vedic Aryans refers the natives as dasa and dasyu and treated them as barbarians. They are black skinned, snub nosed with a different tongue, practices black magic, treacherous in dealing and do not perform sraddha and so on. The Vedic notion on these people is found as the cultural semantics of the generic name ‘mleecha’ which is used to refer number of communities. Different derivations are in vogue, regarding the word mleecha is concerned. Mleecha is derived from ‘vak’ or speech on account of the groups, which are not, belongs to own group linguistically are called by this term (V.I.Subramaniam, 1995). Some others derived it from Sumerian ‘meluHHa’. The trade of Indus with Sumeria and the Mesopotamia has left, as a number of words that are not Dravidian and Buddhist sources used Malacca to refer non-Aryans especially the people of Andhra and Tamil region. Aryans refer different groups of India as l. The meaning of mleecha must have evolved from self-designation, name of foreigners (Wisel 2001). According to Romila Thapar (1979) the Aravalli hills which separates the Indus and Gangetic valleys and the plains where the non-Aryan tribal republic were flourished and also the Vindya Satpura ranges, the plateau of Chotanagpur and Chattisgarh. The names of races or groups found in the ancient days according to the above-mentioned studies are listed below. This list may not be complete and also there may be some difference of opinion. However, the list mentioned in the above books is compiled to show the diversity of population groups in ancient India.
Ābhāru: a tribe (Subramaniam)
Ābhīra: Counted as an mleecha tribe. They were nomadic headsmen who migrated to India with the Scythians and found in lower Indus and Kathiawar (V.I.Subramaniam), Cowherd / Ahir (K.S.Singh).
Āchārya: Priest, a teacher, a section of the brahmanas / a synonym for the Acharaj brahmanas of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, Achari used as a title of Sri Vaishnava Brahmana (K.S.Singh).

Ahindika: Wanderer / Jogi (K.S.Singh).
Ajas: A tribe mentioned in Veda (Subramaniam)
Alinas: A tribe mentioned in Veda (Subramaniam)
Āmbastha: Medical healers / a section of Kayastha (K.S.Singh). Western Anavas group. Aittreya brahmana refers them as king. Tribes of Ambshtoni of Arrain and are descendants of mixed marriage (Subramaniam)
Anarsani: Enemies of Indra (Subramaniam)
Anas: One of the major groups of Panchajanas referred in Veda (Subramaniam)
Anasata: were conquered by the Aryans (Subramaniam)
Anavas: Vedic literature mentions Anavas in Punjab, Sind and Rajasthan/ one of the mleecha group/ The western Anavas were the yaudheyas, Ambashta, Sibi sindhu, Sauvira, Keikeya, Madras, Vŗsha darbu and the eastern Anavas were Anga, vanga, kalinga, pundara and suhma. East they occupied Bihar, Bengal, and Orissa (subramaniam)
Āndhra: Those who live by slaughtering animals. / a territory / Andhra people (K.S.Singh). A group found in peninsular India according to Buddhist sources Andhras were considered as mleechas. Asoka listed them. (Subramaniam)
Ańgas: People of Eastern Bihar (K.S.Singh). One of the mleecha group/ eastern anavas/ one of the Mahapada (Subramaniam)
Angiras: (subramaniam)
Antya-Antyaja: Untouchables/Scheduled Castes of the lowest order (K.S.Singh)
Antyavasāyin: One who ends up at the bottom, a class of untouchables, employed in burial grounds/Kati Kapala/Sudigadu Siddha (K.S.Singh)
Apam-napat: (subramaniam)
Apapātra: Chandala and Svapaka (K.S.Singh)
Apasada/ Outcastes: Base born off springs to Aryans/Scheduled Castes (K.S.Singh)
Arabs: (subramaniam)
Araru: A tribe (subramaniam)
Asmake: one of the mahapada (subramaniam)
Asna: A Dasa group mentioned in Veda (Subramaniam)
Astrologer: Joshi / Jyotish (K.S.Singh)
Asur: A scheduled tribe (K.S.Singh)
Asuras: Demons / maritime people/ Harappan people belongs to Mediterranean stock/ Archaeological remains of Chotanagpur are associated with the local tribes with Asuras/ Indus valley inhabitant / Warrior clan / agriculturists (subramaniam)
Atharva: (subramaniam)
Atri: (subramaniam)
Aurnavabha: Enemies of Indra (Subramaniam)
Avantya: Born of a Vratya Brahmana, they serve in war, inhabitants of western Malwa (K.S.Singh)
Avŗita: (K.S.Singh)
Āyogava:- Offspring of mixes marriage (subramaniam) A carpenter / Badhai / Barhai, Sutar etc. (K.S.Singh)
Barber: Nai/Napit/Valand etc. (K.S.Singh)
Bard: Charan/Bhatraju etc. (K.S.Singh)
Basket Maker: Bansphor/Medarih etc (K.S.Singh)
Bhalanas: one of the tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Bhila Lubhdakos- Tribes of the Vindyas connected with Matangas/ the lawless hunters of the region. (Subramaniam)
Bedar: a tribe/ ruler who changed the concept of mleecha (subramaniam)
Balhikas: - (subramaniam)
Bhoja: a group listed by Asoka (subramaniam)
Bharatas: tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Bhriggakantas: Sorcerers (K.S.Singh)
Blacksmith: Lohar/Kollan etc (K.S.Singh)
Brāhmana: More than 120 brahmana jatis are reported to exist today (K.S.Singh)
Brgu: (subramaniam)
Camuris: a Dasa group (subramaniam)
Carshanis: non Aryan agriculturists (subramaniam)
Chaņdālas: are eaters of carcasses and have to live outside the village or town/ born out of mixed marriage/ are lowest sudra (subramaiam). “Fierce, the paradigmatic untouchable’, often used as the generic term for any untouchable; namasudra of Bengal/Chandala of Orissa (K.S.Singh)
Chedis:- Tribe mentioned in Veda/ one of the Mahapada( subramaniam)
Chine: Chinese, mleecha group of eastern India (subramaniam). Tibeto-Burman communities/people of China (K.S.Singh)
Choļa: People from far South (K.S.Singh)
Chunchu: ‘Notorious’/a group of people who live by slaughtering of animals that live in wilderness/a scheduled tribe of Andhra Pradesh (K.S.Singh)
Daitya: Sons of Diti-Gods (K.S.Singh)
Damila: Buddhist literature note them as mleechas/ group lived in the peninsular India (subramaniam)
Darada: Precipice dwellers, living near Peshawar/a community of Jammu and Kashmir (K.S.Singh)
Dāsa: - They are black skinned, snub nosed, speakers of a strange language, practice black magic do not perform sraddha and treacherous in dealings and live in fortified cities/ barbarians/ the Rgvedic dāsas were paisacas who were people who lived in sailing for fishing and trade/who are devoid of devotion, indifferent to God, restless, lawless, non sacrificing, practising alien rites, revelling God/ dasas are faithless, offeringless autochthones live without rules( subramaniam).
Slave :(K.S.Singh).

Dasārna:a tribe (subramaniam)
Dasyu:The community or races of inhabitants of the places which the Aryans invaded(subramaniam). Alien, groups other than the brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya and sudras (K.S.Singh)
Devas( K.S.Singh)
Dhigvana: Leather workers (K.S.Singh)
Divākīrti: ‘Notorious by day, an untouchable caste’, a term for a barber or for a particular group of untouchable leather workers/chandalas. (K.S.Singh)
Dravida: One of the mleecha tribe of Vindyas (subramaniam). Those from the Deccan and southern India, ‘water carriers’
Druhyus: One of the panchajana (subramaniam)
Dunis:One of the Dasa group (subramaniam)
Ekpāda: a tribe (subramaniam)
Eunuch: Hijda/Khojja/Pavaiya, etc.(K.S.Singh)
Gandharvas: Subject of Varuna, / one of Mahapada (subramaniam). Musicians of the gods (K.S.Singh)
Ghadharis: a tribe mentioned in Veda/ Asura partner (subramaniam)
Ghalla: Those wsho subsist by ‘despicable occupations and those addicted to gambling and drinking, who are fencers with sticks or wrestlers and jesters’ (K.S.Singh)
Goldsmith: Swarnakara/Soni/Sonar, etc. (K.S.Singh)
Gujjars: A mieecha group, when trade in central Asia declined they moved from north to south. The place names reveal their migration like Ahiras. Gujjars came from central India after 6th C AD and are believed to be Tocharian extraction. Gujjar herds men were found in Kashmir, Maharashtra too has a Gujjar caste, a Rajput class is called Bad-Gujar/ the Brahmin caste is called Gjar Gaņ Gauda ( subramaniam)

Gungus: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Huņ/ Huņas: Non Aryans, who conquered the Aryan territory (subramaniam)
Ikshavaku: A tibe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Indo-Greeks: Agroup of mleecha, barbarian Greeks (subramaniam)
Jhalla: Pugilist/Jhetty/Mal etc. (K.S.Singh)
Kaivarta: Fishermen/Jalia Kaibartta of West Bengal, Assam etc (K.S.Singh)
Kalinga: A mleecha group belonging eastern Anavas (subramaniam)
Kalkkanjas or Kalakeyas:A Asura group(subramaniam)
Kamboja: Advanced tribe found in the Frontier/ one of the Mahapada/ Asoka listed them/ their territory was referred to as mleecha territory (subramaniam). A territorial group (K.S.Singh)
Kantala: (K.S.Singh)
Karaņa: Doer, scribes and accountants, spies/a section of Kayastha.(K.S.Singh)
Karanjaparnya: Enemies of Indra (subramaniam)
Karavara: Leather workers/Chamar/Bhambi/Madiga etc (K.S.Singh)
Karnataka:A mleecha group( subramaniam)
Karuśa: From a region called Karusha in western Bihar (K.S.Singh)
Keikeya: One of the western Anavas group (subramaniam)
Khasa: A tribe (subramaniam). “Scab”, water carriers, a community of the Himalayas (K.SSingh)
Khushanas:One of the mleecha group (subramaniam)
Kinnara: A Tribe (subramaniam)
Kikatu: A Tribe (subramaniam)
Kirāta: A mleecha tribe found in the gangetic plains/Vindyas are the abode of Kiratas, who came from east/ tribe mentioned in Veda and conqured by the Aryans (subramaniam). Mountaineer/Mongoloid tribal communities (K.S.Singh)
Kol: Kol of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa preserve the Sabara tradition
Koda: (K.S.Singh)
Kşattar: Cver, also the name of the priest who carves up the victim in a Vedic sacrifice/Badhai/Barhai, Sutar etc (K.S.Singh)
Kşhtriya: Rajputs and other communities claiming to be Rajputs and recognised as such (K.S.Singh)
Kukkuţaka: Wild rooster/scheduled tribes (K.S.Singh)
Kunku: Slaughterer of animals (K.S.Singh)
Lāţa: A mleecha group (subramaniam)
Madgu: Diver-bird /slaughterer of animals that live in the wilderness/some of the scheduled tribes (K.S.Singh)
Madras: A mleecha group belonging to the western Anavas (subramaniam)
Madrukas: (subramaniam)
Māgadha: Traditionally bards and chroniclers/ related to Sudas/ one of the Mahapada (subramaniam). Traders/people of Bihar (K.S.Singh)
Maitreyaka: ‘Ring a bell at the appearance of dawn and praise great men’ (K.S.Singh)
Mallas: One of the Mahapada (subramaniam). Wrestler/Jhetty/Mal etc (K.S.Singh)
Mārgava: Seeker, a boatman also called Kaivarta, a sort of fisherman/Jalia Kaibartta.(K.S.Singh)
Mātanga: The lawless hunters of Vindya region connected with Bhila lubhadhaka (subramaniam)
Mālva: One of the mleecha group who were conquered by the Aryans (subramaniam)
Maruts: (subramaniam)
Matarisvan :( subramaniam)
Matsya: Tribe mentioned in Veda/ one of the Mahapada/ who were conquered by the Aryans( subramaniam). The people inhabiting the tract comprising the doab from the neighbourhood of Delhi as far as Mathura (K.S.Singh)
Meda: Those who live by slaughtering animals/those who live outside the village (K.S.Singh)
Mlechhas: A generic name used to refer non-Arayan groups by the Aryans. Himalyan region was occupied by mleechas. Their race and language were different, and are dark skinned, flat featured, short stature with blood shot eyes. Many groups of non-Aryans are called mleechas/ Andhra kings were earlier mleechas later they were considered Vratya Kshatriya (subramaniam). Barbarians (K.S.Singh)
Mulïba: (subramaniam)
Maruts: (subramaniam)
Nahu:A non Aryan clan of those who pay tribute to Indra(subramaniam)
Naţa: Dancer also used to work as spies/Nat (K.S.Singh)
Namuci: A dasa group / enemy of Aryans (subramaniam)
Nebhaker: A tribe listed by Asoka (subramaniam)
Nişāda: A mleecha group lived in the banks of Narmada and Vindya mountain and Satpura ranges/ non Aryan group (subramaniam). Hunting and gathering communities/fishermen (K.S.Singh)
Odra: A mleecha group (subramaniam)
Pahlava: A race, originally of ksatriya descent, degraded to the condition of sudras in consequence of their neglect of brahmanas (K.S.Singh)
Palida: A group listed by Asoka (subramaniam)
Paňchāla: Confederation of five tribes (subramaniam). A territorial group /people from the doab area from the neighbourhood of Delhi to as far as Mathura/Panchal of western India, a generic group of five artisan castes (K.S.Singh)
Pandusopaka: Worker in cane/Yata (K.S.Singh)
Pakthas: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Pandyas: A mleecha group (subramaniam)
Panis: Bartering herders (subramaniam)
Parada: Those who work in quick silvers (K.S.Singh)
Parāsava: Those who save corpses, woodcutters etc (K.S.Singh)
Pershu: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Parvatas: A tribe mentioned in Vedas (subramaniam)
Parvathavas: A tribe mentioned in Vedas (subramaniam)
Pauņdraka: Sugarcane boilers, those who live in south Bihar and Bengal (K.S.Singh)
Piprus: A Dasa group (subramaniam)
Piśacas: Eaters of raw flesh. They were from North West and later migrated in to Vindyas/ an Asura partner (subramaniam)
Pitrihita: A group found in Asoka’s list (subramaniam)
Pulindas: Jain literature notes them as mleechas/ a group of Vindya region and came from east; migrated from Mathura to Vindya/ as per Buddhist sources they were found in Ceylon (subramaniam).
Pukkasa: A group (subramaniam) those who live by catching and killing animals that live in holes/Mushar/Valayan (Muppan) (K.S.Singh)
Pundara: A mleecha group belonging to the eastern Anavas (subramaniam)
Pundarakumbakarna: a tribe (subramaniam)
Purus: One of the pancha jana mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Puşpada: (K.S.Singh)
Rajanya: A tribal name (subramaniam)
Rāksasa: Pre Harappan non-Aryan group/ Asura partner/ enemy of Aryan found in northern Baluchistan/ warrier clan (panini)(subramaniam). A human group, generally anti-Vedic, anti-Brahmana (K.S.Singh)
Rhisuva :Indra’s enemy group (subramaniam)
Rushama: Atribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Sabara: A mleecha group found in Himalayan and Vindya region who came from east/ Sabara chief ruled as a king (subramaniam)
Śakas: A mleecha group (subraniam). (K.S.Singh)
Śaikha: Having a crest of hair (K.S.Singh)
Śairandhra: Those who are skilled in adorning and attending on his masters/also live by snaring animals (K.S.Singh)
Sambara: A Dasa group (subramaniam)
Satavahana: (subramaniam)
Sāvata: Those who worship gods/temple priests (K.S.Singh)
Sauvras: (subramaniam)
Sauviras: A mleecha group belonging to the western Anavas (subramaniam)
Scythians: counted as mleechas (subramaniam)
Shigru: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Shiniya: Atribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Shiva: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Sibi: A mleecha tribe belonging to the western Anavas and found in the Himalayan and Vindya region and migrated to eastern Rjasthan (subramaniam)
Sindhus: A mleecha group belonging to western Anavas (subramaniam)
Sopāka: Puppy-cooker, those who dig up and sell roots that are fatal poisons, addictive drugs, used in malevolent magical rituals/gatherers, those who live by the occupations of his sire (K.S.Singh)
Sribinda: (subramaniam)
Srinjaya: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Śrotriya: A division of brahmana/ an upper Maithili brahmana group (K.S.Singh)
Sudhanvan: (K.S.Singh)
Śudra: Aboriginal tribe/ a tribal name (subramaniam). A Varna category, composed of a majority of communities (K.S.Singh)
Survara: Jain literature notes them as mleechas (subramaniam)
Sūta: (subramaiam). Those who manage horses and chariots/charioteer, also an oral poet, the traditional narrator of the epics and Puranas (K.S.Singh)
Suhma: A mleecha group grouped as Eastern Anavas (subramaniam)
Surasenkas: A territorial group from the doab area from Delhi to Mathura (K.S.Singh)
Svapāka: A tribe mentioned in Veda(subramaniam).Dog cooker, a term for a group of untouchables who removed the corpses of those who had no relatives, executed those who were condemned to death, etc (K.S.Singh)
Tailor: Darjee (K.S.Singh)
Taksa: A tribe (subramaniam)
Tanu-napat: (subramaniam)
Telī: Oilman (K.S.Singh)
Trigutas: A mleecha group settled in Ravi- sutlej doab (paniani) found in the Himalayan and Vindya region (subramaniam)
Turushkas: A group, who were conquered by the Aryans (subramaniam)
Turuvasas: One of the panchajan mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Ugra: A group (subramaniam). Catching and killing animals that live in holes/Musahars/Valayan (Muppan) (K.S.Singh)
Upādhyāya: A teacher/a surname among some brahmana jatis (K.S.Singh)
Uşanas: (subramaniam)
Usanaras: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Vaideha: Videha of north Bihar (K.S.Singh)
Vaikiks: (K.S.Singh)
Vaisya: A Varna category, consisting of many trading communities as well as those communities who claim to be the vaisyas (K.S.Singh)
Vanga: A mleecha group belong to eastern Anavas/ one of the Mahapada (subramaniam)
Varvara: The Jain literature notes them as mleecha (subramaniam)
Vasatis: A tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Vatadhana: Northern tribes, those who serve in war (K.S.Singh)
Vatsa: Conquered by Aryans (subramaniam)
Vavara: (subramaniam)
Vena: Who use reeds, either as a musician or as a basket maker; drum playing/some of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes/Kunherukala (S.T), a subgroup of Yerukula (K.S.Singh)
Vengrda: Enemy of Indra (Subramaniam)
Vetasu: Tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Videhas: (subramaniam)
Vijasman: (K.S.Singh)
Vishanis: Tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Vitaharyas: Tribe mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Vrātya: Atharva Veda and Dharma Sastras mentioned them/non-Aryans with different language and culture through a ritual “Vratyostoma” they became Aryans (subramaniam) ‘Spies’, mixed categories (K.S.Singh)
Vrtra: Enemy of Indra (subramaniam)
Vrshadarbu: Western anavas/mleechas (subramaniam)
Vyachvants: Tribe mentioned inVeda (subramaniam)
Washerman: Dhobi/Dhoba/Chakali etc (K.S.Singh)
Yakşas: Tribe mentioned in Veda/Asura partner (subramaniam) (K.S.Singh)
Yakshus/Yadavas/Yadus: One of the Panchajana mentioned in Veda (subramaniam)
Yatumatis: (subramaniam)
Yavana: Advanced tribe found in the frontier came to Yamuna Ganga doab and considered as mleechas (subramaniam) Greek/Ionians (K.S.Singh)
Yonas: mleechas / Ashoka listed them (subramaniam)
Youdheyas: mleecha group belong to western anavas found in Himalaya Vindhya region (subramaniam)